A World Heritage Site, Botswana’s lush Okavango Delta sprawls across more than 5,000 inland miles, making it one of the world’s largest wetland eco-systems. Although lions may serve as an African icon, experts list them as an endangered species. Extinct in 26 countries, lion populations of more than 1,000 now survive in only 7 countries, where they face such challenges as river evaporation, over hunting, a decline in natural prey, and increased agricultural development. We support research in the Okavango, monitoring lion movements and demonstrating that lions usually prey on wild antelope and not livestock. Gathering data on local wetlands, river basins, and watersheds, will help in the planning of sustainable environmental management policies and protect the lion population.